Venkateswara Sanctuary is a milestone Vaishnavite sanctuary arranged in the slope town of Tirumala at Tirupati in Chittoor region of Andhra Pradesh, India. The Sanctuary is committed to Venkateswara, a manifestation of Vishnu, who is accepted to have showed up here to spare humanity from preliminaries and inconveniences of Kali Yuga. Consequently the spot has additionally got the name Kaliyuga Vaikuntham and the Master here is alluded to as Kaliyuga Prathyaksha Daivam. The sanctuary is additionally known by different names like Tirumala Sanctuary, Tirupati Sanctuary, Tirupati Balaji Sanctuary. Venkateswara is known by numerous different names: Balaji, Govinda, and Srinivasa.

Tirumala Slopes are a piece of Seshachalam Slopes run. The slopes are 853 meters (2,799 ft) above ocean level. The Slopes contains seven pinnacles, speaking to the seven heads of Adisesha. The sanctuary lies on the seventh pinnacle – Venkatadri, on the southern banks of Sri Master Pushkarini, a blessed water tank. Thus the sanctuary is additionally alluded to as “Sanctuary of Seven Slopes”. Tirumala town covers about 10.33 sq mi (26.75 km2) in territory.

The Sanctuary is built in Dravidian engineering and is accepted to be developed over some undefined time frame beginning from 300 Advertisement. The Garbagruha (Sanctum Sanctorum) is called AnandaNilayam. The managing divinity, Venkateswara, is in standing stance and faces east in Garbha gruha. The sanctuary follows Vaikhanasa Agama custom of love. The sanctuary is one of the eight Vishnu Swayambhu Kshetras and is recorded as 106th and the last natural Divya Desam. The Sanctuary premises had two current Line complex structures to arrange the explorer surge, Tarigonda Vengamamba Annaprasadam complex with the expectation of complimentary suppers to Pioneers, hair tonsure structures and various traveler dwelling locales.

It is the most extravagant sanctuary on the planet as far as gifts got and riches. The sanctuary is visited by around 50,000 to 100,000 explorers day by day (30 to 40 million individuals yearly all things considered), while on uncommon events and celebrations, similar to the yearly Brahmotsavam, the quantity of travelers shoots up to 500,000, making it the most-visited blessed spot on the planet. In 2016, it was accounted for that 27.3 million explorers visited the sanctuary.

It is around 435 km (270.3 mi) from Vijayawada, 571.9 km (355.4 mi) from Hyderabad, 138 km (85.7 mi) from Chennai, 291 km (180.8 mi) from Bangalore, and 781.2 km (485.4 mi) from Visakhapatnam.

There are a few legends related with the appearance of the Master in Tirumala. As indicated by one legend, the sanctuary has a murti (divinity) of Venkateswara, which it is accepted will stay here for the whole term of the current Kali Yuga.

Legend of Tirumala

There are numerous legends with respect to this sanctuary. Sri Venkatachala Mahatyam is the most acknowledged legend among these, which gives the historical backdrop of the sanctuary over the different yugas. This spot had likewise been referenced in numerous puranas. It has been said as “Venkatadri samasthanam Brahmande nasti kinchana, Venkatesha samodevo na bhuto na bhavishyati” which truly interprets as There is no spot in the whole Universe which is equivalent to Tirumala and there is no other God equivalent to Venkatesha before, present or will be later on.

Tirumala as Varaha Kshetra

According to Varaha Purana, during Satya Yuga, Vishnu protected Earth which was taken over by Hiranyaksha to Patala Loka as Adi Varaha – a wild pig with tusks. He battled a savage duel with Hiranyaksa and slaughtered him. He at that point sliced the water and raised the Earth on his tusks. Brahma, the Devas and the sages praised Adi Varaha’s ideals, by reciting the Vedic mantras. They appealed to Him to restore the Earth as in the past. Adi Varaha obliged them, and called upon Brahma to reproduce the world. He communicated his longing to live on the Earth to secure its kin. He instructed his vahana, Garuda to bring Kridachala (a broad normal slope with grandiose pinnacles, installed with gold and valuable stones, and which took after Adisesha fit as a fiddle) from Vaikuntam. Garuda brought Kridachala and saved it on a holy spot (toward the East of Master Pushkarini) picked by Adi Varaha. Brahma and the other blessed personages mentioned the fearsome-looking Adi Varaha to accept a quiet and created look, and lay on the slope to ensure men and award shelters to individuals unfit to arrive at God through Dhyana Yoga (contemplation) and Karma Yoga (carrying out one’s own responsibility). Adi Varaha showed up with four arms and a white face. He was embellished with gems and joined by Bhudevi. He set out to remain at Venkatadri, under a divya vimana, to allow the supplications of men.

Legend of the Seshachalam Hills

It is accepted that the sources of the Tirumala Hills(Seshachalam Slopes) lies in a challenge between Vayu (the breeze god) and Adisesha (the principal snake). During Dvapara Yuga, Adisesha blocked Vayu from entering Vaikuntam as Ruler Vishnu was in the organization of his partner, Lakshmi. An exasperated Vayu tested Adisesha to a battle to choose the more grounded between them, Vayu was entrusted with attempting to pass over Adisesha from the blessed Meru mountain while adisesha was approached to ensure the top with his hood. After quite a while, Vayu seemed to yield and Adisesha lifted his hoods accepting that he had won the challenge. Vayu at that point overwhelmed one of the pinnacles. The pinnacle arrived close to the Swarnamukhi stream and is right now known as Seshachalam hill.[citation needed] A variation to the legend is that the challenge made commotion on earth and Brahma, Indra and different divine beings begged Adisesha to yield. When Adisesha obliged, the pinnacle (Ananda slope) and Adisesha were brushed off Meru and arrived close to the banks of waterway Swarnamukhi. When Adisesha was disheartened with his annihilation, the Divine beings changed over Adisesha into the seven slopes with the hood named as Seshadri slope or Seshachalam slope or Venkatadri slope. Another variation to the story is: Adisesha, exhausted by the challenge was told by Ruler Vishnu to lay on Earth in a spot that he decided for his stay in Kali Yuga.

Legend of Venkateswara

Lakshmi leaving Vaikuntam

In the Kali Yuga, rishis performing yagna looked for the inform with respect to heavenly sage Narada on which of the Trimurti ought to be chosen for offering the products of the yagna. Narada recommended that the astute sage Bhrigu ought to be permitted to choose after he met the Trimurtis. The savvy who had an additional eye in the bottom of his foot visited Master Brahma and Ruler Shiva and went un-saw in both these areas. He reviled Brahma that no sanctuary sans one will revere Brahma and reviled Shiva that sanctuaries on Earth will adore him as Lingam.

At the point when Sage Bhrigu visited Master Vishnu who was in a private gathering with His significant other Goddess Lakshmi, He neglected to quickly get and respect the sage and the savvy felt embarrassed and irate by this demonstration. Sage Bhrigu kicked Ruler Vishnu on the chest, to which Vishnu didn’t respond and rather apologized to the sage by rubbing his feet. During this demonstration, he crushed the additional eye that was available in the underside of Bhrigu’s foot. The additional eye is accepted to speak to the sage’s bogus self love. The wise at that point understood his grave misstep and asked absolution from Master Vishnu. Ruler Vishnu’s chest is noteworthy as the dwelling place of Goddess Lakshmi. The Goddess felt profoundly offended at the wise’s wrongdoing and Ruler Vishnu’s quietness at the demonstration, and left Master Vishnu’s superb homestead (Vaikunta).

Goddess Lakshmi on leaving the Vaikuntham comes to Varaha Kshetra and does extraordinary repentance for a long time. The Divine beings, unnerved with her power, pacified her into coming back to Vaikuntam with the guarantee that the site of her compensation would bear Goddess Padmavathi (Alamelu Manga Devi) as a resurrection of Goddess Lakshmi during the standard of Akasa Raja.

Vishnu leaving vaikuntam

After the takeoff of Goddess Lakshmi, Master Vishnu left Vaikuntham and took his residence in an ant colony on the Venkata Slope under a tamarind tree close to a Pushkarini. Ruler Brahma and Shiva, showing compassion for the state of Vishnu, decided to accept the types of a dairy animals and calf to serve him. Surya – Sun God educated Lakshmi regarding this and mentioned her to offer the bovine and calf to the ruler of the Chola nation expecting the type of a cowherdess.

Curse of chola king

The Chola ruler sent the dairy animals and its calf to eat on the Venkata Slope alongside his group of cows. Finding Ruler Vishnu in the ant colony, the cow ordinary discharged her udder over the ant colony and in this manner took care of the Master. Over some stretch of time, the sovereign saw that the dairy animals didn’t yield any milk and chastised the cowherd harshly.

The cowherd exploring the reason, followed the dairy animals and found the bovine exhausting her udder over the ant colony. In his displeasure, the cowherd pointed a blow with his hatchet on the leader of the dairy animals yet struck God who rose from the ant colony to get the blow and spare the bovine. On observing Ruler Vishnu dying, the cowherd tumbled down and kicked the bucket. On the passing of the cowherd, the bovine came back to the ruler with blood recolors on her body, roaring within the sight of the Chola Lord. An on edge ruler followed the dairy animals to the location of the episode. Almost an ant colony, the Ruler found the cowherd lying dead on the ground.

While the Ruler stood considering how it had occurred, the Master rose from the ant colony and reviled the lord to turn into a Rakshasa (Evil spirit) for the issue of his worker. Importuned by the ruler who argued guiltlessness, the Master favored him by saying that His revile would end when He was embellished with the Kireetam (crown) introduced by Akasa Raja at the hour of His marriage with Sri Padmavati. To make amends the wrongdoings of raising the hatchet against the Master, the cowherd’s atma (soul) got the aid that he and his relatives would have the joy of opening the entryway in the Ruler’s sanctuary in due time.

Goddess Padmavati

In due time, the Chola ruler was reawakened as Akasa Raja and however he administered well, he had no kids destined to him. At the point when he led yagna and was working the ground, he found a child in a lotus blossom and named her Alamelumanga (Woman conceived in Lotus petals) and received her as his little girl. Master Vishnu resurrected as Srinivasa (or introduced himself after repentance in the ant colony) as the child of older lady holy person Vakula Devi. Vakula Devi was Yasoda in her past birth, Ruler Krishna’s non-permanent mother and was despondent in that life for not seeing his marriage. According to the shelter got from Krishna, she was renewed as Vakula Devi.

In course of time Princess Padmavati grew up into a wonderful lady and was visited by Holy person Narada. On perusing her palm, he anticipated that she was bound to be simply the companion of Ruler Vishnu. In due time, Ruler Srinivasa on a chasing trip was pursuing a wild elephant in the woodland. The elephant drove him into a nursery where Princess Padmavati and her house keepers were available .seeing the elephant terrified them and their Princess. At the point when Ruler Srinivasa showed up before the Elephant, it quickly turned round, saluted the Master and vanished into the backwoods. Master Srinivasa saw princess Padmavathi and enquired about her from her house cleaners. Excited by her, Ruler Srinivasa lost enthusiasm for different exercises and trusted in Vakula Devi on his adoration for Padmavathi. He additionally uncovered his way of life as Master Vishnu just as informed her regarding her previous existence as his temporary mother Yasodha.

Marriage of Srinivasa & Padmavathi

Vakula devi leaves her withdrawal to approach Akasa Raja with her proposition of marriage between Ruler Srinivasa and Padmavathi. Meanwhile, the eager Ruler went to the city in the camouflage of a crystal gazer. Princess Padmavathi likewise became hopelessly enamored with Master Srinivasa and became sick subsequent to coming back to the Royal residence. Unfit to analyze her evil wellbeing, the house cleaners welcomed the soothsayer into the royal residence to predict the fate of the princess. At the point when the psychic uncovered that Padmavathi was destined to wed Master Vishnu in his present symbol as Ruler Srinivasa, she recuperated. As the ruler knew about this news, Vakula declared herself to the Ruler and requested his little girl’s deliver union with her child, Master Srinivasa. The thrilled ruler concurred and his guide Bhrihaspati composed the greeting for the wedding between the two symbols.

Master Srinivasa required a meeting of the Divine beings to win their assent for His marriage with Princess Padmavati. The Ruler likewise acquired an overwhelming advance from Kubera, lord of riches in Hindu Folklore towards costs for the wedding just as give confirmation of his riches.

Srinivasa turns into Venkateswara

In around a half year after this heavenly marriage, MahaLakshmi comes to realize that her significant other wedded again and comes to see him in dismay. It is said that the Master transforms into Stone right when he is experienced by Mahalakshmi and Padmavathi. Master Brahma and Shiva show up before the confounded sovereigns and clarify the primary reason behind this – The Ruler’s craving to be on the 7 slopes for the liberation of humankind from the ceaseless difficulties of Kali Yuga. Goddesses Lakshmi and Padmavathi likewise transform into stone symbols communicating their desire to be with their Master consistently. Lakshmi remains with Him on His Chest on the left side while Padmavathi lays on His Chest’s correct side.

Rangadasa was a firm aficionado of Vishnu and over the span of his journey, joined Sage Vaikhanasa Gopinatha, who was going up the Tirumala Slope for the love of the Ruler. This was after the Master had settled the Adivaraha district. Subsequent to washing in the Master Pushkarini, Rangadasa saw Ruler Vishnu underneath a tamarind tree. Anyway Master Vishnu was presented to the sun, wind and downpour and was just ensured by the all-inclusive wings of Garuda. Rangadasa raised a harsh mass of stones around the divinity, and began providing blossoms to Gopinatha ordinarily for Vishnu’s love. At some point, Rangadasa was occupied by a Gandharva lord and his women and neglected to gracefully blossoms to Gopinatha for Vishnu’s love. The Master at that point uncovered Himself and disclosed to Rangadasa that he had not been unfaltering and had capitulated to allurement. Be that as it may, in acknowledgment of Rangadasa’s given assistance to Him till at that point, the Master favored Rangadasa that he would be renewed as a wealthy leader of a territory and would appreciate the natural joys. He would keep on serving the Master, build a delightful sanctuary with a vimana and high encompassing dividers, and subsequently win everlasting magnificence.

Before long the site was overlooked and an ant colony shaped over the sanctuary. This is presumed to be a similar ant colony where Master Srinivasa dwelled later subsequent to plummeting from Vaikuntam.

Temple for Venkateswara

Rangadasa was renewed as Tondaman, the child of the imperial couple, Suvira and Nandini. Tondaman delighted in a pleasurable life as a youngster. At some point, he set out on a chasing undertaking on the Tirumala Slope, and with the assistance of a bovine group, saw Vishnu under the tamarind tree. Tondaman got back, profoundly influenced by the vision of Vishnu. Tondaman later acquired his dad’s realm, Tondamandalam. As per the headings given by Adivaraha to a forester, Tondaman built a prakaram(closed regions of a sanctuary) and dvara gopura, and orchestrated ordinary love of the Ruler according to Vaikhanasa Agama.

Ruler Venkateswara showed up in the fantasy of Thondaman and approaches him to assemble a sanctuary for him where he transformed into stone. So appears the sanctuary for Venkateswara on the seventh slope, named Venkatadri (Venkata Slope) at present day Tirumala-Tirupati.

Mention in Vedas

Disclosure of the Venkateswara god is depicted as a demonstration of celestial fortune: There was an immense ant colony dwelling place at Tirupati, and one day a nearby rancher heard a voice from the sky requesting that he feed the ants. By chance the neighborhood ruler heard the voice and started providing milk for the ants himself. His empathy brought about the fluid revealing the wonderful symbol of Venkateswara covered up inside the ant colony dwelling place.

Srivaishnavite convention opines that the Apparatus Veda section X.155.1 makes a roundabout reference to the sanctuary. One such interpretation goes as:

” The individual, without riches and vision, is beseeched to go to the slope which catches fire all malicious (vikata for Venkata) and drives away all hindrances to harmony and flourishing. The call of the rishi Sirimbitha has clearly not gone futile. ”

Thondaiman, leader of Thondaimandalam(present day Kanchipuram and the surroundings), is accepted to have previously fabricated the sanctuary in the wake of picturing Ruler Vishnu in his fantasy. He manufactured the Gopuram and the Prakhara, and masterminded normal supplications to be led in the sanctuary. Later on, the Chola tradition incomprehensibly improved the sanctuary and gave rich blessings. Until now, the different contents are as yet observed recorded upon the sanctuary prakara dividers. The Sangam writing, for example, that of Silapadikaram and Satanar Manimekalai, dated somewhere in the range of 500BC and 300AD, makes reference to Thiruvengadam (presently named Tirupati) by the moniker “Nediyon Kunram” as the northernmost outskirts of the Tamil realms. Indeed, a genuinely itemized depiction of the god is given in lines 41 to 51 of Book 11 of the Silapadikaram. Once more, the label “Nediyon” for the divinity happens in the accompanying sections:

“High on Vengadam’s transcending peak, with streaming streams in flood,

In between the luminous brilliance, of sparkling Sun and Moon,

Like unto a blue cloud in lightning dresst In all the splendor of rainbow dight, The Red-looked at incredible One, great stands

In dress of extravagant brightness with wreath splendid,

One lotus hand with fearsome circle embellished, and milk white conch (the other held).”

Puranic writing which was made generally around the post-Mauryan and early-Gupta time likewise makes reference to Tirupati as the Aadhi Varaha Kshetra. The Puranas partner the site with Master Varaha, a Dashavatara of Ruler Vishnu. The Varaha holy place holds extraordinary significance in Tirupati and is supposed to be more established than the primary sanctum of Venkateswara. There is likewise the Ranga Mandapam, which is to one side of the sanctuary as one enters.

Srivari Brahmotsavams

Srivari Brahmotsavam is the most significant yearly celebration celebrated at Sri Venkateswara Sanctuary. The occasion is led for nine days during Hindu Schedule month of Āśvina which falls in the middle of the English months September and October. According to the legend it is accepted that Master Brahma will plunge to the earth to lead this celebration and thus the celebration got the name Brahmotsavams, which means an utsavam(festival) performed by Brahma. Sri Venkteswara Sahasranamastotra has references to Brahma playing out the celebration. To look like this even now a little vacant chariot will push forward of the parades of the Venkateswara’s processional god Malayappa.

Medieval history

The primary recorded gift was made by Pallava sovereign Samavai in the year 966 CE. She gave numerous gems and two bundles of land (one 10 sections of land and other 13 sections of land) and requested to utilize the incomes produced from that land to be utilized for the festival of significant celebrations in the sanctuary. The Pallava tradition (ninth century), the Chola administration (tenth century), and Vijayanagara pradhans (fourteenth and fifteenth hundreds of years) were submitted lovers of Master Venkateswara. The sanctuary increased the majority of its present riches and size under the Vijayanagara Domain, with the gift of jewels and gold. In 1517, Vijayanagara Head Krishnadevaraya, on one of his numerous visits to the sanctuary, gave gold and gems, empowering the Ananda Nilayam (internal place of worship) material to be plated. After the decay of Vijayanagara Realm, pioneers from states, for example, the Realm of Mysore and the Gadwal Samsthanam venerated as travelers and gave adornments and assets to the sanctuary. Maratha general Raghoji I Bhonsle (passed on 1755) visited the sanctuary and set up a lasting organization for the lead of love in the sanctuary.

Modern history

After the nightfall of Vijayanagara Domain, the sanctuary went under the control of Golconda in July 1656 and afterward it was under the French for a brief timeframe and under Nawab of Carnatic till 1801 CE.

During 15th Century

In 1417 Promotion, Madhavadasar, an occupant of chandragiri, developed Tirumamani mandapam which is available infront of bangaru vakili of the garbhagriha.

During 16th Century

In 1535 Advertisement, Pedda Tirumalacharya redesigned Sanctuary Tank and Adivaraha hallowed place.

During 19th Century

With the appearance of English during the mid nineteenth century, the administration of the sanctuary went to hands of East India Organization, who concurred exceptional status to sanctuary and maintained a strategic distance from impedance in sanctuary exercises. Madras government passed Guideline seven of 1817, which passed the sanctuary to Leading group of Income through authority of North Arcot Area. In 1821, Bruce of Britain had drawn guidelines for the administration of Sanctuary which is alluded to as Bruce’s Code.

In 1843 the East India Organization moved the Organization of Sanctuary alongside different Sanctuaries in Tirupati to Mahants of Hathiramji Muth, who went about as Vicaranakartas.

During 20th Century

The Sanctuary was under the standard of Mahants for six ages until 1933 when Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams was framed because of the TTD Demonstration in 1933. The Demonstration of 1933 was supplanted by Madras Hindu Strict and Altruistic Blessing Demonstration of 1951. Again in 1966, the sanctuary was set under direct control of Andhra pradesh State Blessings Office, with Andhra Pradesh Altruistic and Hindu Strict Establishments and Gifts act. In 1979, demonstration of 1966 was moved back with new Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams act, where sanctuary organization was vested to a council comprising of official, Executive and two different individuals designated by Legislature of Andhra Pradesh.

Epigraphical records

This Sanctuary bears on its dividers a few engravings which are of verifiable, social and etymological significance. The quantity of engravings on the Slope Sanctuary and in the sanctuaries of Lower Tirupati and Tiruchanur surpass one thousand. There is proof to propose that numerous early engravings on the dividers of the sanctuaries have vanished past recuperation. Upwards of 640 engravings are discovered engraved on the dividers of the sanctuary. They are distributed by the Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams alongside the engravings found in other related sanctuaries in and around Tirupati. All the engravings are in Kannada, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu.

Also, in the sanctuary, there is a one of a kind assortment of around 3000 copper plates on which the Telugu Sankirtanas of Tallapaka Annamacharya and his relatives are engraved. This assortment frames a significant wellspring of material for a recorded etymologist in Telugu separated from its significance to musicologists.

Under the support of practically immensely significant lines of South India, this sacrosanct Sanctuary of Tirumala delighted in full advantages and brilliance. The Pallavas, the Cholas, the Pandyas, Kadavarayas, Yadavarayas, Telugu Cholas, Telugu Pallavas, Vijayanagara lords (Sangama, Saluva and Tuluva lines) have left the characteristics of their support and blessings on the dividers of the sanctuaries of Tirumala and Tirupati.


Daily rituals

Every day ceremonies are performed to all the gods in the sanctuary according to Vaikhanasa Agama. Fans are permitted to see and now and then perform not many of these ceremonies.

Suprabhata Seva

Suprabhata Seva is the above all else pre-day break custom that is performed to Master Venkateswara in a day in Tirumala Venkateswara sanctuary. Suprabhatam is a Sanskrit expression which implies Hello. The custom is acted in Sayana Mantapam inside the sanctum sanctorum of the sanctuary to wake up Master Venkateswara from his divine rest by singing consecrated Sanskrit songs. Suprabhatam songs comprises of 70 slokas which are isolated into four classifications which incorporate.

  • Suprabhatam (Waking the Lord): 29 slokas
  • Stotram (Hymns to praise the Lord): 11 slokas
  • Prapatti (Surrender to the Lord): 16 slokas
  • Mangalasasanam (Prayer to the Lord’s Glory): 14 slokas.

After Suprabhatam, Melukolupu is held during which sankeertanas of Annamacharya are sung by his relatives at Bangaru vakili(golden entrance). The whole seva goes on for 30 minutes.

Thomala Seva

Thomala implies festoon of blossoms tied and left from the shoulders(Tho-shoulders mala-wreath). Thomala seva is the custom performed to the Pancha Beramulu, during which the god is embellished with wreaths of blossoms and Tulsi leaves. This is performed promptly toward the beginning of the day after Suprabhata seva. The wreaths are brought by the Jeeyangar (boss pontiff) of Tirumala sanctuary or by the Ekangi(his pupil), drove by a lit light in a parade to the musical gongs of Jeganta (convenient bells)to the sanctuary. Each wreath is of explicit size and is transferred for explicit spot on the divinity. This seva is performed for 30 minutes.


This is a private seva acted in the sanctum of the sanctuary to the Koluvu Srinivasa icon. It is performed after the Thomala seva in the early hours of the day. There is limited passage during this seva as some significant issues identifying with the sanctuary are discussed in the midst of the symbol alongside the Panchangam or horoscope of the day.


On finish of Thomala Seva, Archana or Sahasranamarchana (1000 name presentation) is performed to the primary divinity Master Venkateswara in the midst of reciting of his one thousand names. After the presentation, endowments are gotten from the Master for the entire world as saying the name and gotram of each the ticket holders would make it an extensive procedure as there would be around 200 Seva kartas consistently. The whole ceremonial goes on for 30 minutes. Archana is then performed to Vakshasthala Lakshmi Tayar in Ekantam, with a blind drawn over the sanctum.

In contrast to other Vaishnava sanctuaries, the Sahasranamam conjured here isn’t the notable Vishnu Sahasranamam yet Sri Venkateswara Sahasaranamam which is extraordinary and recounted to the master just in Tirumala. While the starting point date of the seva isn’t known, an engraving from 1518 A.D. is the soonest recorded occasion where Sahasranamarchana is referenced.

Master Venkateswara gets the second and third archanas in ekantam later in the day. Archana is an arjita seva on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday and is acted in ekantam on different days. Each ticket permits one individual and 2 little Laddus are offered as prasadam for this arjita seva.


Srivari Kalyanotsavam is performed to the Utsava Murti – Sri Malayappa master (rather than the primary divinity) and his consorts Sridevi and Bhudevi. The archakas (clerics) are sanctified to perform ceremonies in the interest of the groom. The wedding service is held by the Vaikhanasa Agama customs and starts with the Vishwaksena Puja. This is trailed by Punya-avahachana and articulating the family of the ladies and groom. The symbols of the Ruler and his ladies face each other with a tera (screen) in the middle of them. After the clerics perform suitable homas, the groom and the ladies are permitted to see each other at the proper favorable second when the screen is expelled. This is trailed by Mangala sutra dharana, Purnahuti and Talambralu and afterward Ruler and his consorts are garlanded.

This seva isn’t performed on significant celebrations like Srivari Brahmotsavam, Pavitrotsavam, Pushpayagam, and so forth., and on the times of sun oriented and lunar shrouds. The span of the seva is around 60 minutes.

The act of Kalyanotsavam began in 1536 Promotion when Tallapaka Tirumala Ayyangar considered praising the marriage celebration of Master Malayappa master and the service was directed more than five days in the Tirumamani mandapam.

This seva begins precisely at 12:00 pm and winds up at 1:00 pm followed by darshan. In excess of 500 couples partake in this seva.


Dolotsavam is acted in the Addala Meda (Mirror Lobby) as it is famously known. The corridor is in Aina Mahal (Addala Mantapam) inverse Ranganayaka mantapam where Arjita Brahmotsavam is performed. The Aina Mahal comprises of mirrors on four dividers and a focal stage with the arrangement for an Unjal (Swing). Sri Malayappa Master, Sridevi and Bhudevi are situated in the unjal (Swing) and the divinities are swung to the backup of Veda parayanam (Veda recitation) and mangalavadyam (conventional music).

Arjita Brahmotsavam

Arjita Brahmotsavam is performed every day and is the condensed form of the Brahmotsavam occasion. The seva is acted in the Vaibhavotsava Mantapam where the vahanams (vehicles of the ruler) are kept consistently. In the seva, Sri Malayappa Master is situated on Garuda Vahanam, Hanumanta Vahanam and Peddasesha Vahanam in a specific order and offered venerate. This seva is directed after the Dolotsavam is finished.

Arjita Vasanthotsavam

Arjita Vasanthotsavam is led every day as a compressed variant of the Vasanthotsavam. The seva is directed in the Vaibhavotsava Mantapam. The seva is offered to Sri Malayappa master and His consorts – Sridevi and Bhudevi. The seva starts with perfumeries and aromas applied to the gods. The veda pandits serenade Purusha Suktam, Narayana Suktam, Shri Suktam and Bhu Suktam. Abhishekam (holy shower) is performed to the Ruler and his consorts with holy water, milk, curd, nectar and turmeric. Next, shoe glue is applied to Sri Malayappa Master and his consorts,they are garlanded with Tulsi malas and are offered some upacharas. At the determination of the Seva, a punctured plate(Sahasradhara Patram) is hung on the divinities and water is poured, making a shower.

Sahasra Deepalankarana Seva

Sahasra Deepalankarana (1000 Diyas enrichment) seva is the main day by day seva that is performed outside the sanctuary. The seva is acted in the Kolimi Mantapam situated on the south eastern corner of the Srivari sanctuary at 1700 hrs consistently. Sri Malayappa master alongside Sridevi and Bhudevi are taken out in parade where one thousand wick lights are lit. The ruler is situated in an unjal (swing) amidst the lights and Annamayya Sankirtanas and vedic songs are sung to the recently marry God and Goddesses. On events, bunch move (regularly from Karnataka, however not limited) is additionally held. As an ongoing practice, after the Sahasra Deepalankarana seva, the Ruler and his consorts are taken on a parade along the 4 roads encompassing the sanctuary, before taking them inside the sanctuary complex.

The ticket holders are given 2 little laddus for this seva. At the finish of this seva, the ticket holders are allowed to have the darshan of the primary god in the sanctum sanctorum. The span of the seva is 20-30 minutes.

Ekanta Seva

Ekanta Seva is the last seva performed to Ruler Venkateswara before the sanctuary closes for the afternoon. During this custom, the laurels embellishing the moolavar (primary divinity) are expelled. The earlier day’s Gaddam Bottu will be supplanted by another one.Bhoga Srinivasa icon is laid on a gold Uyyala in the Sayana Mantapam utilizing silver chains. Milk, organic products, almonds are offered to the Master. Chandanam is put at the feet of the fundamental divinity in the wake of expelling the kavacham covering the feet. Chandanam (Sandalwood glue) is additionally positioned on the chest of Bhoga Srinivasa. Since it is accepted that Master Brahma comes to perform supplications to the Ruler after the sanctuary entryways are shut each night. Chandanam, water and puja materials are left for his use. Water filled in silver cups are likewise saved for being sanctified by Master Brahma and the equivalent is circulated as ‘Tirtha’ (heavenly/consecrated water) to all travelers the following day.

Tarigonda Vengamamba’s aarti in a plate trimmed with one of the dasavatarams (10 Symbols of Ruler Vishnu) alongside pearls purchased by Vengamamba’s relative is waved to the Master. During the whole function, relatives of Tallapaka Annamacharya sing Annamacharya’s Jolapata (cradlesong). During Dhanurmasa, the symbol of Ruler Krishna is taken care of in the Uyyala rather than Bhoga Srinivasa.

The Bangaru Vakili is shut and darted with archakas key followed by Jeeyar’s and head’s keys. The sanctuary specialists scale the entryway lock. On Varalakshmi Vratam day alone after Ekanta seva a couple of more customs are watched. The Vakshasthala Lakshmi Tayar is embellished with another vastram (customary garments) and naivedyam (consecrated food) is offered to her with arrangements made out of Bengal gram. With this the shade is attracted to day by day sevas and ceremonies in the sanctuary.

Fans could possibly be permitted to see this custom dependent on the traveler surge on that day. The specific date of beginning of the seva is obscure while records exists of Krishnadeva Raya’s spouses – Chinnaji Devi and Tirumala Devi introducing brilliant cups to offer milk to the master in 1513 A.D.

Weekly rituals

Vishesha Pooja (Monday)

Each Monday after the subsequent chime, the utsava murthy is brought to the Vasantha Mantapam to get a ‘Chaturdasa Kalasa Thirumanjanam likewise called Vishesha Pooja. Seven vessels have the accompanying seven materials (dravyas); Gingelly oil, milk, curds, ghee, yellow grains (akshata), darbha and panchagavya and the parity of seven vessels contain suddhodaka (for example unadulterated water) with these 14 kalasas, Abhishekam is performed to Malayappa master and the two consorts. The custom goes this way. The archaka looks for the utsava vigraha’s anjuna trailed by Ankurarpana. This is an exceptionally basic ceremony of just putting the grains with palikas. When the palikas are prepared, agnihoma is begun. At that point aavahana is done to the kalasas (i.e., conjuring the nearness of the gods). The sankalpa to the individuals who are supporting a specific arjita seva is done and the visesha puja begins with rendering upacharas to God, finishing in offering aarti. As panchasuktas are discussed thirumanjanam is done to the utsava vigraha beginning with milk, water, curds and sandalwood glue. After the finish of abhishekam, aarti is offered and the icon is given a shower with water in the kalasas. Purnahuti is offered in order to proclaim the finish of the homa. Naivedyam is offered to God.

Each ticket qualifies 1 individuals for go to this arjita seva and they are given one major laddu, one vada as prasadam and vastra bahumanam (a silver bound upper article of clothing) and sathari. At the finish of the seva, the ticket holders are additionally sent for the darshan of the primary god in the sanctum sanctorum.

This puja is done regularly on Mondays and isn’t seen when extraordinary celebrations like Brahmotsavam, Pavitrotsavam and so forth., occur.

Ashtadala Pada Padmaradhana ( Tuesday )

In this seva the god is worshiped with 108 golden lotus flowers while performing a special archana. Admission for this seva through “vaikuntham complex” . It is Ashtadala – Swarna – Padma – Puja. This special puja is celebrated on Tuesdays after the second bell is over and Jeeyar swamy with the Sri Vaishnavas comes out. The arjita sevakas who paid for the seva are allowed to go and sit in the mandapa between Bangaru Vakili and the Kulasekharapadi. In this puja, the archaka offers these flowers at the holy feet of the Lord with the uttering of each name, during the recitation of Dvadashanamas of the Lord after offering dhoopa and deepa to the main deity. Later archana is offered to Goddess Lakshmi & Padmavati. Then nakshatra aarti is offered first followed by karpoora neerajanam. Then arjita sevakas are given vastra (upper cloth) along with sathari and they are given two big laddus, two vadas as prasadam.

Sahasra Kalasabhishekam (Wednesday)

This is another unique and exquisite Seva offered to The Lord Venkateswara. It is performed every Wednesday Morning starting 6:00 a.m. This special puja is observed before the second bell is over in the morning i.e., after Sattumorai, Bhoga Sreenivasa is brought outside the Bangaru Vakili. The idol is placed facing east. The idol will have sambandha daaramu (Telugu word) i.e., a thin rope will be tied connecting it with the Mulavigraha in the sanctum. This rope will be tied round the feet of Bhoga Srinivasa at this end and the other end will be placed near the Kati Hasta of the Mulavigraha, thus symbolically involving the Mulabera with the pooja and making it obvious that Bhoga Srinivasa is only representing the Mulavar. Then the utsava vigraha (Malayappa Swami) is also brought and placed outside the Bangaru Vakili facing south. It is as if the trio is presiding over the special puja to be commenced. 1008 silver vessels filled with Akashaganga teertham are kept along with 8 more parivara kalasas and one gold vessel filled with water. The devotees who have paid for the seva are seated in the mantapam around 1008 kalasas and sankalpa is done. Then the puja starts with the recitation of Panchasuktas and Pancha-Shanti-Mantras. As these mantras are recited, the archakas perform Snapana Tirumanjanam to the idols viz, Bhoga Srinivasa, Malayapa swami and his two consorts and vishwak sena with water in the 1008 kalasas and the eight pavithra kalasas. Finally the golden vessel with water will be carried by one archaka to the accompaniment of recitation of Vedas and mangala vadyams in a pradakshina manner round the ananda vimana prakaram (outer courtyard) (inner prakaram), round the dhvajasthambha and then taken to Mulasthana (sanctum). Then at the Mulavarsannidhi ekanta – ashtothra – archana is offered to the main deity.
This archana is not open to public but is done behind the curtain drawn at the sanctum. The archakas sprinkle (proksana) the water from the golden vessel (Swarna kalasa) on the feet of the deity then symbolically including the Mulavigraha also in the Sahasrakalasa Abhishekam. The vigrahas near the Bangaru Vakili will be taken back to the sanctum. The second bell rings. Then in the presence of temple officers, Akshataropana ritual will take place in the sanctum i.e., Akshata (holy yellow rice) will be offered at the feet of the main deity. Then the archaka sprinkles some of those grains on his head and then the rest is kept for offering to the temple executives and devotees who take part in the seva. By that time, the curtains will be drawn and the arjitha sponsors have a darshan of the Mulavar. They will be given vastrabahumana, sathari and teertha. One ticket for the Sahasrakalasabishekam allows 6 people to participate with one couple allowed for Sankalpam.
“Prasadam” – 7 Big Laddus, 1/4 kilo each of Sweet Pongal, Pulihora, 7 dosas and 7 vadas.

Tiruppavada Seva (Thursday)

This is performed every Thursday Morning starting around 5:30 a.m. Tiruppavada means a divine skirt, or loosely, a veil. A huge mound of cooked Tamarind spiced rice (Pulihora) is poured on a silver tray (Size about 6 ft X 4 ft) and placed directly in front of the Lord such that it is about a couple of feet in front of his steed, Sri Garudalwar, in the foyer area of the temple’s sanctum. Amidst chanting of Mantras(Srinivasa Gadyam), the previous wide Naamam is peeled off and a thin Naamam is adorned on his forehead just to cover the space between his eyebrows. When this happens, it is believed that the Lord’s first gaze after “opening” his eyes (because they were covered by The Naamam) should not fall on mortals, because it has lot of power. Instead, it is made to fall on the mound of “pulihora” directly in front of him, thereby sanctifying it and reducing the intensity of his gaze. The “pulihora” therefore acts like a veil (“Paavada” in Telugu/Tamil) protecting devotees from his powerful gaze.[citation needed] This new thin Naamam then stays for the entire Thursday, and finally peeled off completely in the early hours of the next morning (Friday) before Abhishekam.

Poolangi Seva(Thursday)

After the evening upacharas offered to the deities, the moolvirat of Lord Venkateshwara Is decorated with different garlands of flowers from top to toe as if he is wearing a Poolangi (shirt of flowers). The other deities are also decorated with garlands made of exotic flowers and aarti is offered to them.

Abhishekam (Friday)

Abhishekam is a Sanskrit word for the celestial bath that is performed to the main presiding deity in any Hindu temple. As per tradition, in Tirumala, this is performed on the pre-dawn of every Friday. It is performed from morning 3:30 a.m. and may last up to 5:00 a.m. A team of 4–5 priests will perform the Abhishekam based on Vaikhanasa Agama. All bedecked gold and diamond ornaments, clothing, and finery is taken off from the presiding deity except a white loin, and a heavy gold necklace bearing a pendant with Sri Mahalakshmi’s seated pose. The abhishekam is performed by priests with water (brought from Akashaganga teertham), milk, punugu-kasturi parimalam(scent), turmeric, sandal paste, etc. During Abhishekam, priests will recite Pancha Suktam – Purusha Suktam, Sri Suktam, Bhoo Suktam, Nila Suktam, and Santhi Vachanam.

Vasthralakarana Seva (Friday)

This paid seva also known as Melchat Vastram is conducted immediately after conducting Abhishekam on Fridays. The deity of Venkateswara will be adorned with a saree bought and handed over by devotees participating in that seva. The archakas will apply Namam, adorn saree and a few jewels to the deity of Venkateswara and no devotee is allowed to watch this. The devotees participating in Abhishekam and Vastralankarana Seva are allowed for Abhisheka-anantara darshanam with a new saree after offering naivedyam to the Lord.

Nijapada Darshanam (Friday)

Archana anantara darshan on Friday is called Nijapada Darshanam. Normally the Lord’s feet are covered with a golden kavacham . But on Friday after performing Abhishekam to Venkateswara, the feet are left without the kavacham during which Nijapada Darshanam is held which allows devotees to see the feet of the Lord. This is a paid service where the devotees are allowed until Kulasekhara padi.

Annual Sevas

The main annual festival of the Tirumala temple is the Brahmotsavam festival coinciding with the Dussara festival though Brahmotsavam function is carried out twice in the temple (the lesser known of the Brahmotsavam occurs earlier in August–September). Apart from Brahmotsavam, the following functions are conducted every year:

  • Teppotsavam
  • Vasantotsavam
  • Padmavati Parinayam
  • Abhideyaka Abhishekam
  • Pushpa Pallaki
  • Koil Alwar Tirumanjanam
  • Pavitrotsavam


Tirumala Sri Venkateswara Temple is a paradise of Festivals where over 433 festivals are being observed in 365 days of a year suiting the title “Nitya Kalyanam Paccha Toranam” where every day is a festival.
Sri Venkateswara Brahmotsavams, a nine-day event, which is celebrated every year during month of October, is the major event of Sri Venkateswara Temple. During brahmotsavams the processional deity Malayappa along with his consorts SriDevi and BhuDevi, is taken in a procession in four mada streets around the temple on different vahanams. Vahanams include Dwajarohanam, Pedda Sesha Vahanam, Chinna Sesha Vahanam, Hamsa Vahanam, Simha Vahanam, Muthaypu pandiri Vahanam, Kalpavriksha Vahanam, Sarva Bhoopala Vahanam, Mohini Avataram, Garuda Vahanam, Hanumantha Vahanam, Swarna Rathotsavam(Golden Chariot), Gajavahanam, Rathotsavam(Chariot), Ashwa Vahanam, Chakra Snanam. During Brahmotsavams, The temple will witness lakhs of devotees particularly on Garuda vahanam. Vaikunta Ekadasi, the day on which it is believed that Vaikunta Dwarams will be opened and the most important Vasihnavite festival, is celebrated with grandeur in Tirumala. The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple will be flooded with devotees on a single day with numbers reaching up to 1.5 lakhs, to have a darshan of Venkateswara through special entrance which encircles inner sanctum called “Vaikunta Dwaram”. Rathasapthami is another festival, celebrated during February, when Venkateswara’s processional deity(Malayappa) is taken in a procession around the temple on seven different vahanams starting from early morning to late night. The other annual festivals include Rama Navami, Janmashtami, Ugadi, Teppotsavam(Float Festival), Sri Padmavati Parinayotsavams, Pushpa yagam, Pushpa pallaki, Vasanthotsavam (spring festival) conducted in March–April, were celebrated with great splendor.