48 kos parikrama of Kurukshetra

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48 kos parikrama is a Hindi phrase meaning a 48 kos circumambulation parikrama (pilgrimage) of various Mahabharata-related and other vedic era tirthas (Hindu sacred sites) around the holy city of Kurukshetra in the state of Haryana, India. There are several pilgrimages around the city of kurukshetra and a complete parikrama means to visit all these pilgrimages. The picture depicts the complete map of all these sites.
Since this is a site associated with the vedic era Lord Krishna and mahabharata, it is an important place of pilgrimage for Hindus. It is one of 3 main pilgrimage sites related to “Krishna” circuit, namely “48 kos parikrama of Kurukshetra” in Haryana, “Braj parikarma” in Mathura in Uttar Pradesh state and “Dwarka parkarma” (Dwarkadish yatra) at Dwarkadhish Temple in Gujarat state.

Main sites

Lord Krishna, Kaurava and Pandava visited and lived in this area, and it is revered as their Karma Bhūmi (most scared land of virtuous deeds) also related to the five classical elements of Hinduism called Pancha Tattva. Brahma Sarovar is the focal site of this circuit, which can be subdivided into various other itineraries.
Within Kurukshetra, along with Brahma Sarovar, other important sites are Jyotisar (place of “Gitaupadesha” – the first Upadeśa or discourse of Bhagavad Gita by Lord Krishna) and Sannihit Sarovar (Hindu genealogy registers of Kurukshetra are kept here). Pilgrims also visit the Bhishama kund, Surya kund and Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple (where Pandavas along with Krishna prayed to Shiva and received his blessings for victory in the battle of Mahabharata).
In addition, pilgrims also visit Pehowa, where the most revered sites are Saraswati tirtha and Prithudak tirtha, which is an ancient city and its religious significance is mentioned in several puranas, such as Skanda Purana (1st to 5th century CE), Markandeya Purana (4th to 6th century CE) and Vamana Purana (5th to 11th century CE).
In Yamunanagar district, Kapal Mochan (Kapal Mochan (visited by Lord Rama) and Sri Sarasvati Udgam Tirath at Adi Badri (place where deified mother goddess Sarasvati is revered because the sacred Sarasvati River enters the plains from the foothills of shivalik range) are also important sacred sites.
Many pilgrims like to trace their genealogy going back hundreds of generation, trace prior visits by their ancestors and record their own visit in the Hindu genealogy registers of Kurukshetra and Hindu genealogy registers of Pehowa maintained by Pandas (professional genealogists).

List of most important sacred sites

Kurukshetra: Brahma Sarovar, Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple, Sannihit Sarovar, Jyotisar, Hindu genealogy registers of Kurukshetra
Pehowa: Saraswati tirtha and Prithudak tirtha
Yamunanagar district: Kapal Mochan and Adi Badri

Buddhist pilgrimage

Buddha had visited Sthaneshwar and gave discourse on the banks of Brahma Sarovar where a Bodh Stupa was built. Stupa has five structures of brunt brick, first three from Kushana period, 4th from Gupta period, and the last from Verdana period and later medieval period. During Harshavardhana reign, a 3 meters wide compound wall was built.
For the Buddhist pilgrims, the most important sites are Brahma Sarovar and the Bodh Stupa on its northwestern flank. Other Buddhist pilgrimage sites nearby Buddhist sites include Chaneti, Topra, and Adi Badri Sharirika stupa. Many pilgrims prefer to follow the path taken by Buddha along Grand Trunk Road in Haryana. Stupas, pagodas and places in the order of travel by Lord Buddha are:
From Mathura in Uttar Pradesh, Buddha travelled along Grand Trunk Road in Haryana (also see Buddhist pilgrimage sites in Haryana).
Kamashpura Aastha Pugdal Pagoda (Kumashpur) in Sonipat city, the place where Buddha gave Mahasatipatthana sutta.
Assandh Kushan stupa at Assandh in Karnal district
Kurukshetra Stupa on the banks of sacred Brahma Sarovar in Kurukshetra city was also visited by Hieun Tsang,
Topra between Kurukshetra and Yamunanagar, now has a large open air museum park housing several replica of Ashoka’s edicts including largest Ashoka Chakra in the world, original site of Ashokan pillar which was moved to Feroz Shah Kotla in Delhi in 1356 CE by Firuz Shah Tughlaq.
Srughna, now known as the Sugh Ancient Mound, on outskirts of Yamunanagar city
Chaneti Buddhist Stupa, on outskirts of Yamunanagar city, according to Hieun Tsang it was built by the King Ashoka.

Sikh pilgrimage

Several Sikh gurus had visited Sthaneshwar, Pehowa and Kapal Mochan for the holy dip.
In Kurukshetra, Sikh pilgrims visit Brahma Sarovar and the “Gurudawara Pehli Patshai” (just next to Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple on the south bank of Brahma Sarovar where the ninth Guru Tegh Bahadur stayed at). Following the trail of Sikh gurus, the pilgrims also visit Pehowa as well as Kapal Mochan. Kapal Mochan was visited by Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh after Battle of Bhangani in 1688 CE.
Other important Sikh pilgrimage sites are Sadaura, Lohgarh (capital of Banda Singh Bahadur) and Badkhalsa in Sonipat (where Bhai Kushal offered his head to retrieve Guru Teg Bhadur’s head beheaded by mughals so that it can be taken to Anandpur Sahib).

List of pilgrimage sites in 48 kos parikrama

Tirthas of Kurukshetra district

1. Arunai tirtha, Arunai
2. Prachi tirtha, Pehowa
3. Saraswati tirtha, Pehowa
4. Brahmayoni tirtha, Pehowa
5. Prithudak tirtha, Pehowa
6. Shalihotra tirtha, Sarsa
7. Bhisma Kund, Narkatari
8. Ban Ganga, Dyalpur
9. Kulotaran Tirtha, Kirmich
10. Brahma Sarovar, Kurukshetra
11. Sannihit Sarovar, Kurukshetra
12. Bhadrakali Temple, Kurukshetra
13. Aditi Tirtha and Abhimanyu ka Tila, Amin
14. Site of Gitaupadesha, Jyotisar
15. Som Tirtha, Sainsa
16. Shukra Tirtha, Sataura
17. Galav Tirtha, Guldehra
18. Saptasarsvta Tirtha, Mangna
19. Brhma Tirtha (Brahma Sthan), Thana
20. Som Tirtha, Gumthalagadu
21. Manipurak Tirtha, Murtjapur
22. Bhurishrava Tirtha, Bhor Saidan
23. Lomash Tirtha, Lohar Majra
24. Kamyak Tirtha, Kamauda
25. Aapga Tirtha, Mirjapur
26. Karan ka Tila, Mirjapur
27. Nabhikamal, Thanesar
28. Rantuk Yaksha, Bid Pipli
29. Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple
30. Ojas Titha, Samsipur
31. Renuka Tirtha, Ranacha
32. Bhor Saidan

Tirthas of Jind district

32. Bhuteshwar tirtha, Jind
33. Ekhamsa tirtha, Ikkas
34. Ramhrad tirtha, Ramrai
35. Sannehit tirtha, Ramrai
36. Pushkar tirtha, Pohkarkheri
37. Som tirtha, Pindara
38. Varahakalan tirtha, Brahakalan
39. Ashwinikumar tirtha, Aasan
40. Jamdagni tirtha, Jamni
41. Yayati tirtha, Kalwa
42. Panchnanda tirtha (Hatkeshwar tirtha), Haat
43. Sarpadadhi tirtha, Safidon
44. Sarpadaman tirtha, Safindon
45. Kayashodan tirtha, Kasuhan
46. Vamsamulam tirtha, Barsola
47. Khageshwar tirtha, Khadalwa
48. Ramsar tirtha, Kuchrana kalan
49. Lohrishi/Lokodwar tirtha, Lodhar

Tirthas of Panipat district

50. Tarntauk Yaksha, Sinkh

Tirthas of Kaithal district

51. Pawanhrad tirtha, Pabnawa
52. Falgu tirtha, Faral
53. Pawaneshwar tirtha, Pharal
54. Kapil Muni tirtha, Kalayat
55. Pundrik tirtha, Pundri
56. Trivishtap tirtha, Tyontha
57. Kotikut tirtha, Kyodak
58. Banteshwar tirtha, Barot
59. Namish tirtha, Nauch
60. Vedvati tirtha, Balwanti
61. Vridkedar tirtha, Kaithal
62. Sarak tirtha, Shergarh
63. Manush tirtha, Manas
64. Navadurga tirtha, Devigarh
65. Gyaraharudri tirtha, Kaithal
66. Aapga tirtha, Gadli
67. Juhomi tirtha, Hajwana
68. Vishnupada tirtha, Barsana
69. Yajnasanjna tirtha, Geong
70. Kapilmuni tirtha, Kaul
71. Kulotaran tirtha, Kaul
72. Garhratheshwar tirtha, Kaul
73. Matri tirtha, Rasulpur
74. Suryakunda tirtha, Habri
75. Havya tirtha, Bhana
76. Chakramani tirtha, Sherda
77. Rasamangal tirtha, Songhal
78. Mukteshwar tirtha, Mator
79. Sritirtha, Kasan, 80. Srikunja tirtha, Banpura
81. Ekshumati tirtha, Polar
82. Sutirtha tirtha, Sontha
83. Brahmavarta tirtha, Brabhavat
84. Aruntak Yaksha, Beharjaksha
85. Sringi Rishi tirtha/ Shankhni Devi tirtha, Sangan
86. Gobhwan tirtha, Guhana
87. Suryakunda, Sajuma
88. Seetvan/Swaragdwara tirtha, Siwan
89. Brombhodumber tirtha, Shilakheri
90. Anyajanma tirtha, Deodakheri
91. Devi tirtha, Kalsi
92. Dhruvakunda tirtha, Dherdu
93. Kukrityanashan tirtha, Kaukat
94. Kavya tirtha, Karoda
95. Lavakusha tirtha, Mundri
96. Vamana tirtha, Sounghal
97. Rinmochan tirtha, Rasina
98. Alepak tirtha, Shakra
99. Devi tirtha, Mohna
100. Gandharva tirtha, Gohrankheri

Tirthas of Karnal district

101. Vedvati tirtha, Sitamai
102. Mishrak tirtha, Nisang
103. Aahan tirtha, Nigdu
104. Trigunananda tirtha, Guniyana
105. Pawan tirtha, Uplana
106. Jambunand tirtha, Jabala
107. Dasshswamedha tirtha, Salwan
108. Dhankshetra tirtha, Assandh
109. Jarasandha ka kila, Assandh
110. Vimalsar tirtha, Saga
111. Dasaratha tirtha/Raghvendra tirtha/Surya kund, Aaugandh
112. Prithavi tirtha, Balu
113. Parashar tirtha, Bahalolpur
114. Daksheshwar tirtha, Dachar
115. Vyasa Sthali, Basthali
116. Goutam rishi/ Gavendra tirtha, Gondar
117. Brahma tirtha, Sawant
118. Akshyavata tirtha, Badthal
119. Falgu tirtha, Fafdana
120. Jyesthashrama tirtha, Borshyam
121. Koti tirtha, Borshyam
122. Surya tirtha, Borshyam
123. Vishnuhrad (Vishnupad) Vamnak tirtha, Borshyam
124. Brahma tirtha, Rasalwa
125. Anjani tirtha, Anjanthali
126. Jamdagni tirtha, Jalmana
127. Sudin and Narvada tirtha, Omkar ka khera
128. Tripurari tirtha, Tigri
129. Som tirtha, Samana Bahu
130. Chuchukaranva tirtha, Chorkarsa
131. Koti tirtha, Kurnal
132. Panchdeva tirtha, Pada
133. Prokshini tirtha, Patnapuri
134. Kaushiki tirtha, Koyar