Vastu shastra (vāstu śāstra – actually “study of design”) is a customary Indian arrangement of engineering beginning in India. Writings from the Indian subcontinent depict standards of structure, format, estimations, ground readiness, space course of action, and spatial geometry. Vastu Shastras fuse customary Hindu and (at times) Buddhist convictions. The plans intend to coordinate engineering with nature, the general elements of different pieces of the structure, and old convictions using geometric examples (yantra), evenness, and directional arrangements.
Vastu Shastra are the printed piece of Vastu Vidya – the more extensive information about engineering and structure speculations from old India. Vastu Vidya information is an assortment of thoughts and ideas, with or without the help of design graphs, that are not unbending. Or maybe, these thoughts and ideas are models for the association of room and structure inside a structure or assortment of structures, in light of their capacities corresponding to one another, their use and the general texture of the Vastu. Old Vastu Shastra standards incorporate those for the plan of Mandir (Hindu sanctuaries), and the standards for the structure and design of houses, towns, urban communities, gardens, streets, water works, shops and other open territories.
The Sanskrit word vāstu implies a home or house with a comparing plot of land. The vrddhi, vāstu, takes the significance of “the site or establishment of a house, site, ground, building or abode, residence, estate, house”. The hidden root is vas “to abide, live, remain, live”. The term shastra may freely be interpreted as “regulation, educating”.
Vāstu-Śastras (actually, study of abiding) are old Sanskrit manuals of engineering. These contain Vastu-Vidya (truly, information on abiding).
Proposition following potential connections of the standards of organization in Vastu Shastra and the Indus Valley Human advancement have been made, however Kapila Vatsyayan is hesitant to theorize on such connections given the Indus Valley content stays undeciphered. As indicated by Chakrabarti, Vastu Vidya is as old the Vedic time frame and connected to the custom design. As indicated by Michael W. Meister, the Atharvaveda contains stanzas with spiritualist cosmogony which give a worldview to vast arranging, yet they didn’t speak to design nor a created practice. Varahamihira’s Brihat Samhita dated to the 6th century CE, states Meister, is the main known Indian content that depicts “something like a vastupurusamandala to design urban communities and structures”. The rise of Vastu vidya as a particular field of science is conjectured to have happened essentially before the first century CE.
There exist numerous Vāstu-Śastras on the specialty of building houses, sanctuaries, towns and urban areas. One such Vāstu Śastra is by Thakkura Pheru, portraying where and how sanctuaries ought to be constructed. By sixth century Advertisement, Sanskrit manuals for building palatial sanctuaries were available for use in India. Vāstu-Śastra manuals remembered parts for home development, town arranging, and how productive towns, towns and realms incorporated sanctuaries, water bodies and gardens inside them to accomplish agreement with nature. While it is muddled, states Barnett, with respect to whether these sanctuary and town arranging writings were hypothetical investigations and if or when they were appropriately actualized by and by, the manuals propose that town arranging and Hindu sanctuaries were considered as goals of workmanship and indispensable piece of Hindu social and otherworldly life.
The Silpa Prakasa of Odisha, wrote by Ramachandra Bhattaraka Kaulachara at some point in ninth or tenth century CE, is another Vāstu Śastra. Silpa Prakasa depicts the geometric standards in each part of the sanctuary and imagery, for example, 16 feelings of individuals cut as 16 sorts of female figures. These styles were idealized in Hindu sanctuaries pervasive in eastern conditions of India. Other antiquated writings discovered extend these structural standards, proposing that various pieces of India created, concocted and included their own translations. For instance, in Saurastra convention of sanctuary building found in western conditions of India, the female structure, articulations and feelings are delineated in 32 kinds of Nataka-stri contrasted with 16 sorts portrayed in Silpa Prakasa. Silpa Prakasa gives brief prologue to 12 sorts of Hindu sanctuaries. Different writings, for example, Pancaratra Prasada Prasadhana gathered by Daniel Smith and Silpa Ratnakara assembled by Narmada Sankara give a progressively broad rundown of Hindu sanctuary types.
Old Sanskrit manuals for sanctuary development found in Rajasthan, in northwestern district of India, incorporate Sutradhara Mandana’s Prasadamandana (actually, manual for arranging and building a sanctuary) with parts on town building. Manasara shilpa and Mayamata, writings of South Indian root, assessed to be available for use by fifth to seventh century Advertisement, is a manual on South Indian Vastu structure and development. Isanasivagurudeva paddhati is another Sanskrit content from the ninth century depicting the specialty of working in India in south and focal India. In north India, Brihat-samhita by Varāhamihira is the generally refered to antiquated Sanskrit manual from sixth century portraying the structure and development of Nagara style of Hindu sanctuaries.
These old Vāstu Śastras, frequently talk about and depict the standards of Hindu sanctuary configuration, yet don’t restrict themselves to the structure of a Hindu sanctuary. They depict the sanctuary as an all encompassing piece of its locale, and spread out different standards and a decent variety of substitute structures for home, town and city design alongside the sanctuary, gardens, water bodies and nature.
Mandala types and properties
The focal zone in all mandala is the Brahmasthana. Mandala “circle-boundary” or “fruition”, is a concentric graph having otherworldly and custom hugeness in both Hinduism and Buddhism. The space involved by it shifts in various mandala – in Pitha (9) and Upapitha (25) it possesses one square module, in Mahaapitha (16), Ugrapitha (36) and Manduka (64), four square modules and in Sthandila (49) and Paramasaayika (81), nine square modules. The Pitha is an enhanced Prithvimandala in which, as per a few messages, the focal space is involved by earth. The Sthandila mandala is utilized in a concentric way.
The most significant mandala is the Manduka/Chandita Mandala of 64 squares and the Paramasaayika Mandala of 81 squares. The typical situation of the Vastu Purusha (head in the upper east, legs in the southwest) is as portrayed in the Paramasaayika Mandala. In any case, in the Manduka Mandala the Vastu Purusha is delineated with the head confronting east and the feet confronting west.
It is accepted that each bit of a land or a structure has its very own spirit and that spirit is known as Vastu Purusha.
A site of any shape can be isolated utilizing the Pada Vinyasa. Destinations are known by the quantity of squares. They extend from 1×1 to 32×32 (1024) square locales. Instances of mandalas with the comparing names of destinations include:
Sakala (1 square) compares to Eka-pada (single partitioned site)
Pechaka (4 squares) compares to Dwi-pada (two partitioned site)
Pitha (9 squares) compares to Tri-pada (three partitioned site)
Mahaapitha (16 squares) compares to Chatush-pada (four partitioned site)
Upapitha (25 squares) compares to Pancha-pada (five partitioned site)
Ugrapitha (36 squares) compares to Shashtha-pada (six partitioned site)
Sthandila (49 squares) compares to Sapta-pada (seven partitioned site)
Manduka/Chandita (64 square) compares to Ashta-pada (eight partitioned site)
Paramasaayika (81 squares) compares to Nava-pada (nine partitioned site)
Aasana (100 squares) compares to Dasa-pada (ten partitioned site)
Bhadrmahasan (196 squares) compares to Chodah-pada (14 partitioned destinations)
Present day adjustments and use
Vāstu Śastra speaks to a collection of antiquated ideas and information to numerous cutting edge designers, a rule however not an unbending code. The square-matrix mandala is seen as a model of association, not as a ground plan. The antiquated Vāstu Śastra writings depict practical relations and versatile interchange formats for different rooms or structures and utilities, yet don’t command a set obligatory engineering. Sachdev and Tillotson express that the mandala is a rule, and utilizing the mandala idea of Vāstu Śastra doesn’t mean each room or building must be square. The essential subject is around center components of focal space, fringe zones, bearing regarding daylight, and relative elements of the spaces.
The pink city Jaipur in Rajasthan was ace arranged by Rajput lord Jai Singh and worked by 1727 CE, to some degree around Vastu Shilpa Sastra standards. Additionally, present day period tasks, for example, the engineer Charles Correa’s structured Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya in Ahmedabad, Vidhan Bhavan in Bhopal, and Jawahar Kala Kendra in Jaipur, adjust and apply ideas from the Vastu Shastra Vidya. In the structure of Chandigarh city, Le Corbusier joined present day engineering hypotheses with those of Vastu Shastra.
During the frontier rule time of India, town arranging authorities of the English Raj didn’t consider Vastu Vidya, however to a great extent united Islamic Mughal period themes and structures, for example, vaults and curves onto Victorian-time style structures without generally speaking relationship design. This development, known as Indo-Saracenic engineering, is found in clamorously spread out, however remotely amazing structures as presently utilized significant railroad stations, harbors, charge assortment structures, and other frontier workplaces in South Asia.
Vāstu Śastra Vidya was disregarded, during provincial period development, for a few reasons. These writings were seen by nineteenth and mid twentieth century designers as obsolete, the writing was out of reach being in an old language not spoken or read by the planners, and the old writings expected space to be promptly accessible. Interestingly, open undertakings in the frontier time were constrained into swarmed spaces and nearby format limitations, and the antiquated Vastu sastra were seen with partiality as eccentric and unbending about a square network or customary materials of development. Sachdev and Tillotson express that these preferences were defective, as an academic and complete perusing of the Vāstu Śastra writing plentifully recommends the modeler is allowed to adjust the plans to new materials of development, nearby design imperatives and into a non-square space. The structure and finish of another city of Jaipur in mid 1700s dependent on Vāstu Śastra writings, a long time before any frontier period open undertakings, was one of numerous verifications. Different models incorporate present day open undertakings planned by Charles Correa, for example, Jawahar Kala Kendra in Jaipur, and Gandhi Ashram in Ahmedabad. Vastu Shastra cures have additionally been applied by Khushdeep Bansal in 1997 to the Parliament complex of India, when he satisfied that the library being worked close to the structure is answerable for political shakiness in the nation.
German designer Klaus-Subside Gast states that the standards of Vāstu Śastras is seeing a significant recovery and wide utilization in the arranging and structure of individual homes, private buildings, business and modern grounds, and significant open activities in India, alongside the utilization of old iconography and legendary work of art fused into the Vastu vidya models.
Vastu and odd notion
The utilization of Vastu shastra and Vastu experts in present day home and open tasks is disputable. A few designers, especially during India’s provincial period, thought of it as arcane and odd. Different planners express that pundits have not perused the writings and that a large portion of the content is about adaptable structure rules for space, daylight, stream and capacity.
Vastu Shastra is considered as pseudoscience by pragmatists like Narendra Nayak of League of Indian Realist Affiliations. Researcher and space expert Jayant Narlikar considers Vastu Shastra as pseudoscience and composes that Vastu doesn’t have any “sensible association” to nature. One of the models refered to by Narlikar contending the nonattendance of intelligent association is the Vastu rule, “destinations formed like a triangle … will prompt government badgering, … parallelogram can prompt fights in the family.” Narlikar noticed that occasionally the structure plans are changed and what has just been constructed is destroyed to suit for Vastu rules. As to convictions in Vastu, Science essayist Meera Nanda refers to the instance of N. T. Rama Rao, the ex-boss pastor of Andhra Pradesh, who looked for the assistance of Vastu specialists for his political issues. Rama Rao was exhorted that his issues would be tackled in the event that he entered his office from an east-bound entryway. As needs be, a ghetto on the east-bound side of his office was requested to be crushed, to clear a path for his vehicle’s entrance. The information on Vastu advisors is addressed by Pramod Kumar (reference required), “Inquire as to whether they know structural designing or engineering or the neighborhood government administers on development or least principles of development to exhort individuals on structures. They will get into a flood of “old” writings and “science” that smack of the pseudo-study of crystal gazing. Ask them where they were before the development blast and on the off chance that they will go to ghetto apartments to exhort individuals or prompt on minimal effort network lodging—you experience a mental blackout.”
Sanskrit treatises on design
Of the various Sanskrit treatises referenced in antiquated Indian writing, some have been deciphered in English. Numerous Agamas, Puranas and Hindu sacred texts remember parts for engineering of sanctuaries, homes, towns, towns, fortresses, roads, shop format, open wells, open washing, open lobbies, gardens, stream fronts in addition to other things. Now and again, the compositions are somewhat lost, some are accessible just in Tibetan, Nepalese or South Indian dialects, while in others unique Sanskrit original copies are accessible in various pieces of India. A few treatises, or books with parts on Vaastu Shastra include:
- Brhat samhita
- Anka sastra
- Aparajita Vāstu Śastra
- Maha-agamas (28 books, each with 12 to 75 chapters)
- Ayadi Lakshana
- Aramadi Pratishtha Paddhati (includes garden design)
- Kupadi Jala Sthana Lakshana
- Kshetra Nirmana Vidhi (preparation of land and foundation of buildings including temples)
- Gargya samhita (pillars, doors, windows, wall design and architecture)
- Griha Pithika (types of houses and their construction)
- Ghattotsarga Suchanika (riverfront and steps architecture)
- Chakra sastra
- Jnana ratna kosha
- Vastu sarani (measurement, ratio and design layouts of objects, particularly buildings)
- Devalaya Lakshana (treatise on construction of temples)
- Dhruvadi shodasa gehani (guidelines for arrangement of buildings with respect to each other for harmony)
- Nava sastra (36 books, most lost)
- Agni Purana (Chapters 42 through 55, and 106 – Nagaradi Vastu)
- Matsya Purana (Chapters 252 through 270)
- Maya samgraha
- Prasada kirtana
- Prasada Lakshana
- Tachchu sastra (primarily home design for families)
- Manushyalaya Lakshana (primarily human dwelings)
- Manushyalaya Chandrika
- Mantra dipika
- Mana kathana (measurement principles)
- Manava vastu lakshana
- Manasollasa (chapters on house layout, mostly ancient cooking recipes)
- Raja griha nirmana (architecture and construction principles for royal palaces)
- Rupa mandana
- Vastu chakra
- Vastu tattva
- Vastu nirnaya
- Vastu purusha lakshana
- Vastu prakasa
- Vastu pradipa
- Vastu manjari
- Vastu mandana
- Vastu lakshana
- Vastu vichara
- Vastu Vidya
- Vastu vidhi
- Vastu samgraha
- Vastu sarvasva
- Vimana lakshana (tower design)
- Visvakarma prakasa (home, roads, water tanks and public works architecture)
- Sastra jaladhi ratna
- Silpa prakasa
- Silpakala Dipika
- Silpartha Śastra
- Sanatkumara Vāstu Śastra
- Samarangana Sutradhara